1. It produces a gas that smothers the flame. For example, antimony trioxide reacts with HCl from combustion in PVC to form a smoldering gas, namely antimony nitrogen oxide.
2. It can absorb the heat produced during combustion and cool down the combustion rate. For example, aluminum hydroxide contains up to 34% of chemically associating water in its molecules, which remains stable at the processing temperature of most plastics, but begins to decompose when it exceeds 200 ℃ and releases water vapor. And every gram of aluminum hydroxide decomposition, to absorb 36 kcal heat.
3. Provide a coating insulated from oxygen. For example, the phosphide produced by the combustion of phosphate flame retardant is an oxygen barrier coating.
4. It can form free radicals which can react with plastics and act as flame retardant. The combustion properties of the products from their reaction with plastics are very poor.
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