Phosphorus-nitrogen flame retardant is also called intumescent flame retardant. When the polymer containing this kind of flame retardant is heated, a uniform carbon foam layer can be formed on the surface, which can insulate heat, oxygen and smoke. It can prevent the phenomenon of droplets, so it has good flame retardant properties.
Picture of the carbon layer of polypropylene with intumescent flame retardant
Intumescent flame retardant systems generally consist of three parts: acid source (dehydrating agent), carbon source (carburizing agent) and gas source (nitrogen source, foaming source). The carbon source in the IFR undergoes an esterification reaction under the action of an acid source, and the product is an ester compound; after that, a dehydration and crosslinking reaction occurs, and the ester compound forms a carbonized product. At the same time, the gas generated by the decomposition of the gas source acts on the carbonized product. Make it form a closed, porous, and fluffy carbon layer with a foamed structure. The carbon layer is essentially carbon microcrystals, an amorphous carbon structure, which cannot be burned, and can block the heat conduction between the polypropylene flame retardant material and the heat source It has the effect of increasing the thermal degradation temperature of the flame-retardant propylene. In addition, the closed foamed carbon layer can prevent the diffusion of gas, that is, prevent the flammable gas generated by thermal decomposition from diffusing, and at the same time block the flow of external oxygen to the surface of the uncracked flame-retardant polypropylene material. Oxygen and heat, the burning flame-retardant polypropylene material will self-extinguish.
Phosphorus-nitrogen flame retardants have the advantages of halogen-free, low smoke and low toxicity. In addition, compared with brominated flame retardants, the price of intumescent flame retardants is cheaper
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